Mozambique


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g-nome
January 5, 2006, 05:17 AM
As I understand it, this term refers to a double tap of the center mass followed by a single round to the head. Correct?

Where does the term Mozambique come from though?

Plus, how do you pronounce it? :D

Is it; Mow(lawn mower)-zam-beak? Oh-yeah am I spelling it correctly?

He he thanks.

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1 old 0311
January 5, 2006, 07:24 AM
That is how you pronounce it. The term came from how they shot terrorists. Actually I think the South Africans were the first to use it.

Kevin

TarpleyG
January 5, 2006, 08:30 AM
And it's the Mozambique Drill. Mozambique is a country in Africa. It is more commonly referred to nowadays as a failure drill.

http://www.africaguide.com/country/mozamb/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozambique_Drill

Greg

stoky
January 5, 2006, 09:05 AM
The Mozambique Drill is suppose to be two to the body and access (low ready). The subsequent shot to the head comes as a realization that the two to the body did not stop the threat, body armor, drug crazed, whatever. The rythm should be reggae.

Preacherman
January 5, 2006, 09:06 AM
The "Mozambique drill" was named by Col. Jeff Cooper after the experience of one of his students who had to defend himself in that country. Fr. Frog (http://www.frfrogspad.com/mozam.htm) describes it as follows:

The Mozambique Drill (the ubiquitous "2 in the body, 1 in the head") is a long- time drill of Gunsite graduates. As far as I know the term was first discussed by Jeff Cooper in an article in his "Commentaries," Vol. 1, No. 1, June 1994, which is reprinted here for your enlightenment.

"As time passes we discover that there are a good many readers who have not been to school and who are puzzled by our reference to "The Mozambique Drill."

"I added The Mozambique Drill to the modern doctrine after hearing of an experience of a student of mine up in Mozambique when that country was abandoned. My friend was involved in the fighting that took place around the airport of Laurenco Marquez. At one point, Mike turned a corner was confronted by a terrorist carrying an AK47. The man was advancing toward him at a walk at a range of perhaps 10 paces. Mike, who was a good shot, came up with his P35 and planted two satisfactory hits, one on each side of the wishbone. He expected his adversary to drop, but nothing happened, and the man continued to close the range. At this point, our boy quite sensibly opted to go for the head and tried to do so, but he was a little bit upset by this time and mashed slightly on the trigger, catching the terrorist precisely between the collar bones and severing his spinal cord. This stopped the fight.

"Upon analysis, it seemed to me that the pistolero should be accustomed to the idea of placing two shots amidships as fast as he can and then being prepared to change his point of aim if this achieves no results. Two shots amidships can be placed very quickly and very reliably and they will nearly always stop the fight providing a major-caliber pistol is used and the subject is not wearing body armor. However, simply chanting "two in the body, one in the head" oversimplifies matters, since it takes considerably longer to be absolutely sure of a head shot than it does to be quite sure of two shots in the thorax. The problem for the shooter is to change his pace, going just as fast as he can with his first pair, then, pausing to observe results or lack thereof, he must slow down and shoot precisely. This is not easy to do. The beginner tends to fire all three shots at the same speed, which is either too slow for the body shots or too fast for the head shot. This change of pace calls for concentration and coordination which can only be developed through practice.

"Mike Rouseau was later killed in action in the Rhodesian War. May he rest in peace!"

(By the way, if you haven't yet discovered Fr. Frog's shooting pages, I highly recommend them as good reading. Click on the "home page" link on the page I linked to above, and prepare for several hours of shooting-related reading enjoyment! And no, Fr. Frog is not me, but I've gotten to know him over the years, and count him as a friend.)

Onmilo
January 5, 2006, 09:47 AM
Yeah,
The Mozambique Drill.
It's great.
Very effective.
Especially if the target isn't shooting back at you!

Mozambique is a wonderful place.
You can get your hand chopped off for stealing and then the hand is chopped up even more so a surgeon can't sew it back on!
Like you will find a reconstructive surgeon in Mozambique!

Women can have their ears chopped off for listening to gossip and their lips cut off for speaking gossip.
Then they can have the ultimate joy of pan frying and eating the body parts in the town square.
I guess so those parts can't be sewn back on by that all too common reconstructive surgeon.

Stick to realistic training like hitting a swinging plate with one or two well placed shots.
This will get you farther in the real world than wasting bullets on silly drills.

1911 guy
January 5, 2006, 10:46 AM
I enjoy reading Col. Cooper, but dissagree with him on this. If I've got two shots off and need to do more, a smaller, more mobile target isn't what I've got in mind. The pelvic girdle seems more appropriate to me. Hopefully break foreward motion with a large target, then deal with the new developements which are hopefully a disabled and disarmed assailant.

sturmruger
January 5, 2006, 11:24 AM
I usually practice shooting two shots to COM and then pause to see if another shot is neeeded. I guess they call that Mozambique. For me it just makes sense, I want to stop any threat as soon as humanly possible.

md2lgyk
January 5, 2006, 02:48 PM
In the pistol EIC matches I shoot with the National Guard, it's called the "Anti Body Armor" stage.

rchernandez
January 5, 2006, 03:35 PM
When you look at it all, it's about stopping an adversary high on drugs, running amok, or what have you and the adequacy of the firearm/ammo on hand. One variation to this drill that I heard about involved stopping an on-rushing adversary by aiming at the lower abdomen/hips to make them drop sooner. I'm not sure what the point was but I think they were after the hip bone (?) where the hit supposedly registers far greater pain and more immediate stopping...murky details

The Mozambique experience is not too in-different to the American experience in the Philippines with the Moro's around the turn of the century. .30 caliber rifles and .38 caliber pistols couldn't stop their drug induced charge and Moro warrior still managed to swing their bolos at the soldiers despite being riddled with bullets. Back then the solution was a lot simpler, as the story goes, no double taps...the army adopted a larger round...thus the 1911 in .45acp.

Disclosure: I immigrated from the Philippines some time ago and yes, I do have a collection of 1911 types in .45acp...now mostly wad guns for bullseye.


Okay...lunch is over, back to work.

taliv
January 5, 2006, 04:30 PM
preacherman, thanks for the fr frog link. it was indeed an hour or two of reading enjoyment

Nicky Santoro
January 5, 2006, 05:05 PM
Local shyster was on the receiving end of one some years ago. Two .25 ACP to the upper thorax, followed by one to the beezer. Seems to work well. He's still dead.

mustanger98
January 5, 2006, 06:02 PM
Some of my reading of Col. Cooper quotes him as saying he didn't coin the term "Mozambique Drill". It came about, IIRC, because one of his friends got killed over there emptying a mag into a charging assailant's COM, whereas he might have lived had he put 2rds COM and 1rd in the head. IIRC, this is also called the "El Presidente". I don't doubt it also has other names in certain sporting and/or fighting circles.

taliv
January 5, 2006, 06:25 PM
close, but no. the story in cooper's words is in the link preacherman posted.

Hawkmoon
January 5, 2006, 06:42 PM
I usually practice shooting two shots to COM and then pause to see if another shot is neeeded. I guess they call that Mozambique. For me it just makes sense, I want to stop any threat as soon as humanly possible.
Two shots and stopping is NOT a Mozambique Drill. The MB is two shots to COM followed by one shot to the head. Colonel Cooper's description did not say to stop after two and evaluate ... he said to slow down and be sure of shot placement for the third. Could this be because the head is a smaller target than the torso?

mustanger98
January 5, 2006, 08:44 PM
close, but no. the story in cooper's words is in the link preacherman posted.

Upon closer inspection, actually, Preacherman posted the quotes for Cooper that I recall, but it had been a couple of years since I'd seen them. Time, even for a younger person, has a way of goofing things up. I recalled that Cooper's associate (friend, student, whatever; in this case, student) had been killed in fighting in Africa but didn't retain the exact details. However, I'm quite sure Col. Cooper said he wasn't the one who coined the name "Mozambique Drill" from reading directly from Cooper's Commentaries at that time. I WILL be looking this up.

Cosmoline
January 5, 2006, 08:50 PM
The drill should not be confused with the practice of giving a coup de grace to the head after the target is down or on his way down. THAT would likely get you prison time. The MD as I know it is two fast shots COM, after which you adjust your aim up and are prepared to shoot the head. If the two COM shots did their job, as you come up you'll see only air not a head and there will be no need for the third shot. If the head is still there as you raise up, you shoot it.

mustanger98
January 5, 2006, 09:25 PM
Here is what I've found so far of Col. Cooper's writing concerning or relating to the Mozambique Drill.

http://www.molonlabe.net/Commentaries/jeff4_8.html
Just last week up in Denver we were treated to an example of the handgun training procedures now apparently in widespread use amongst the feds. I was holding rifle school on a range back-to-back with the contingent of agents from the Health and Human Services division. Their training procedure was strictly in accordance with regulations handed down from on high, and the officer in charge was a copchick in the range tower manning a bullhorn. Naturally she could not do much supervising up in that perch, but she had the training manual in front of her and she proceeded with great precision. Instructions were given out verbally over the horn, and the students were expected to follow these instructions individually on each of several firing points. One exercise which fascinated me consisted of firing six rounds, three barricade-right and three barricade-left. Two shots were to be fired at the body, and then a single at what she referred to as "the groin." The objective of this drill leaves me without a clue. Presumably it was some sort of degeneration from the classic Mozambique Drill, in which the student fires two shots as fast as he can at the center of mass, then, after pausing to observe the effect of his first two shots, he slows down and places one round carefully in the head. The idea is that if the first two shots do not quiet the adversary, this is either because he is not interested in the cartridge employed or he is wearing body armor. Speed is no longer a dominant consideration, but turning the adversary off is. The way one turns his adversary off is with a shot to the brain. A shot to the pubis, even if perfectly delivered, is unlikely to stop the conflict. It may annoy, inconvenience, or enrage the adversary, but it will not stop his shooting. Only a head shot will do that.

Thus we have the Mozambique Drill derived from an actual circumstance in Mozambique many years ago, in which the victorious contestant was one Mike Roussou, later killed in action in the Rhodesian War. The Mozambique Drill is a very definite addition to the repertoire of any qualified pistolero. What was being taught on the range up in Denver does not seem to follow any reasonable pattern.

I do not suppose it is relevant, but these Health and Human Resources people were able to achieve at least one negligent discharge behind me. We may assume that was due to violation of Rule 3, but fortunately no one was hurt. Just what these HHS people need with pistol training is an open question, apart from the truism that everybody needs pistol training if it can be made available. The more armed citizens we have, the better, but I do not see the need to single out one batch of federal bureaucrats among the population at large.

http://www.molonlabe.net/Commentaries/jeff1_1.html
This is the quote Preacherman posted above through a different source.

http://www.molonlabe.net/Commentaries/jeff5_6.html
The Laurel Canyon shoot in Los Angeles recently has brought forth a torrent of commentary - most of which demonstrates an almost unbelievable level of technical ignorance.

To begin with, a whole platoon of journalists insists that the LA police were "undergunned." Now, as we all know, one is undergunned only if he misses. It may be suggested that the standard 9mm pistol cartridge is not sufficient to penetrate body armor and that, as a result, the police should go to a major caliber, such as 45 ACP. Anyone who is qualified to have an opinion on the subject knows that a 45 ACP provides less, not more, penetration than a 9mm. For years we have pointed out that if your first two hits to the body do not suffice, you shift your aim to the head. This is, of course, the renowned Mozambique Drill, taught by that name at all reputable schools of pistolcraft.

Another body of journalistic opinion has held that the LAPD needs more and better training in marksmanship. I know something about the level of marksmanship training in the Los Angeles Police Department and I do not think that the technical ability to hit a target is the issue here. What wins in a gunfight is "mindset." Here in Arizona we have access to a ludicrous camcorder tape which shows the minions of the law kicking up dirt around the target at short range, when, of course, they can all hit a beer can reliably at such distances.

One man armed with a Model 1894 30-30 deer rifle could have stopped that Laurel Canyon shooting within seconds after its start, but he would have had to display the proper mindset called for by the circumstances. I am convinced that it can be taught, since I have taught it successfully for about twenty years. Why it is not taught is a sociological rather than a technical question.

stoky
January 5, 2006, 11:42 PM
The drill should not be confused with the practice of giving a coup de grace to the head after the target is down or on his way down. THAT would likely get you prison time. The MD as I know it is two fast shots COM, after which you adjust your aim up and are prepared to shoot the head. If the two COM shots did their job, as you come up you'll see only air not a head and there will be no need for the third shot. If the head is still there as you raise up, you shoot it.
Then the witness says: "He shot him twice and he dropped his weapon. Then he shot him in the head."
Should your focus be on the front sight when you do the two COM?
Maybe then you lower your weapon (slightly), so you can see, and focus moves foward to the threat. Still a threat? Weapon comes back up, focus to front sight on the head. Could this happen way quicker than it takes to read it?

As TarpleyG pointed out the name was changed from the politically incorrect Mozambique Drill to Failure Drill. The two COM shots failed to terminate the threat, so a head shot was required. Two to the body, one to the head, we'd like em alive but we'll take em dead.

El Presidente is three targets, beginning with the shooters back to the targets. The shooter looks over his shoulder and percives a threat. The shooter turns, draws and shoots two targets with a single COM shot and two COM shots to the third target. The shooter performs a speed reload and executes a head shot on each of the first two targets.

Ultimate ninja guarnfkenteed combat solutions?
hardly
Some excercises that might sharpen one's motor skills, induce some thought and not make your buddy quite as nervous as having him downrange swinging a plate for you to shoot at?
Reckon that's for you to decide.

taliv
January 6, 2006, 12:24 AM
mustanger, yeah, i'm not sure anyone really cares, probably not even cooper. but the way i read that is only saying that cooper popularized the drill and probably created it. he didn't say whether or not he named it. maybe his friend named it. who knows?


either way, like anything else, you take the good and leave the bad. double-tap to COM seems a rational first reaction. if it becomes evident that the first two HITS had no effect, letting fly with the remaining 6 to the same area is probably not the best decision. should you shoot slowly at the head? maybe. legs? maybe. run like hell? maybe

all i'm saying is it's probably a better response than closing your eyes and pulling the trigger until it stops going bang

mustanger98
January 6, 2006, 01:41 AM
Good points. And it really don't matter who named the drill; it's a good strategy by any name especially if it saves somebody's life.

either way, like anything else, you take the good and leave the bad. double-tap to COM seems a rational first reaction. if it becomes evident that the first two HITS had no effect, letting fly with the remaining 6 to the same area is probably not the best decision. should you shoot slowly at the head? maybe. legs? maybe. run like hell? maybe

I remember when I got my first 1911A1, I know I was getting a good gun, but I also knew I was outfitting for a bad situation I hoped never came (and so far, so good). I had the 7rd mag that came with it, but I got two 8rd Colt mags... we said if I couldn't take care of it with 23rds, I was in the wrong place, but the truth is if I'd had to use the first round I was in the wrong place, because common sense is "a gun is not a substitute for situational awareness" and "a fight avoided is a fight won". (I don't know who said it, but I know I'm quoting somebody.:confused: ) I've also heard it said that "anybody who kills when he can do otherwise is crazy", but there's also plenty of arguement against shooting out somebody legs because "everybody knows" a live perp is still a threat. "Run like Hell?" That's what they told me I better do if I couldn't take care of it with 23rds. ***shrug*** Best to avoid it altogether if possible, but know how to take care of what can't be avoided.

all i'm saying is it's probably a better response than closing your eyes and pulling the trigger until it stops going bang

Amen to that. There is no magic bullet.

trickyasafox
January 6, 2006, 02:07 AM
what ever happened to shoot till good ol' fashioned slide lock, reload and reasses? i mean come on people:p

mustanger98
January 6, 2006, 02:17 AM
what ever happened to shoot till good ol' fashioned slide lock, reload and reasses? i mean come on people:p

That sounds good as far as simplicity goes, but, let's say I have 70rds of .45 in loaded mags, and I do. But, if somebody's charging and they get inside 21' (= 7yds = contact distance according to case law in GA) acting like they're hopped up on goofballs and don't stop after the double tap, how many more rounds and reloads can I go through before it becomes hand to hand, or worse yet, a knife fight.:uhoh: Best to stop 'em short of that.

Travis McGee
January 6, 2006, 02:19 AM
This reminds me of the "official LAPD SWAT Gang Sign."

You look at the bad guys lurking on the street corner and put two fingers ("peace sign") over your heart, and the pointer finger of the other hand on your forehead. And you smile at them.

Cosmoline
January 6, 2006, 04:00 AM
El Presidente is three targets, beginning with the shooters back to the targets. The shooter looks over his shoulder and percives a threat. The shooter turns, draws and shoots two targets with a single COM shot and two COM shots to the third target. The shooter performs a speed reload and executes a head shot on each of the first two targets.

Head shots AFTER a reload? That sounds like a coup de grace. You have to be careful with followup shots on humans. The head shot is a last-ditch measure.

chopinbloc
January 6, 2006, 04:49 AM
Head shots AFTER a reload? That sounds like a coup de grace. You have to be careful with followup shots on humans. The head shot is a last-ditch measure.


i'd also encourage people to use the phrase "controlled pair," rather than "double tap." problem is that the term double tap has been used to refer to the military practice of going back and "tapping" an enemy an extra time even after the threat has been neutralized. this is illegal in the military and even worse for civilians. it is obvious between us what we mean but if your report to the police uses the term "double tap," the prosecutor may try to twist your words. a long shot, definitely, but something to keep in mind. you can avoid even the possibility by getting in the habit of using the term "controlled pair," and if you DO give a statement, just try to describe what happened as honestly as you can without using any jargon.

Archangel
January 6, 2006, 02:13 PM
El Presidente is three targets, beginning with the shooters back to the targets. The shooter looks over his shoulder and percives a threat. The shooter turns, draws and shoots two targets with a single COM shot and two COM shots to the third target. The shooter performs a speed reload and executes a head shot on each of the first two targets.

Incorrect.

El Presidente is 3 targets spaced 3 meters apart, 10 meters from the shooter. Shooter starts with back to target, turns, draws, fires 2 shots COM on each target, executes a speed reload, and fires 2 more shots COM on each target.

(Descriptions of it can be found here (http://www.frfrogspad.com/courses.htm) and here. (http://uspsa.org/classifiers/99-11.pdf))


Head shots AFTER a reload? That sounds like a coup de grace. You have to be careful with followup shots on humans. The head shot is a last-ditch measure.

El Presidente is a training / assessment drill, not a combat tactic.

Cosmoline
January 6, 2006, 02:51 PM
Well you train for what you expect to do. I'd hate to train myself to be shooting execution-style headshots after a reload. I also question the utility of the drill. If your initial shots don't work, you should be concentrating on getting to cover and running away--not standing there for a reload. If your first COM shots failed, why would more shots work? And how are you going to survive while you're reloading?

rero360
January 6, 2006, 03:39 PM
in regards to the shots to the pelvic area after shots to the COM fail to end the conflict, I was told that because most of your weight is resting on your hips, a shot to the pelvis has a good chance of breaking the bone and thus making standing impossible, also in the pelvic area you have the femoral artery branching going down to the legs, a hit to the area stands a good chance of hitting the artery and causing the suspect to bleed out. while shis is a good way to bring a target down, they still can pose a threat, I saw a video of a police shootout where a female cop shot to save her partner and shot IIRC three times COM and then with a slight pause, I'd say quater to half a second, put three more into the perps pervic region. The perp dropped, but the cops still had to struggle with him for a little bit, perp died within a few minutes, before ambulances arived. YRMV

depicts
January 6, 2006, 04:47 PM
Preacherman, I too want to thank you for the link to Fr Frog. Lots of good stuff and plenty to learn. I collect sites like that in my Gun Education and philosophy bookmarks, and that will be right up there with the best.

mbs357
January 6, 2006, 04:54 PM
I remember one time a while back playing SWAT3, I just happened to have my pistol out (in the bank level I think), the first bad guy I came upon I used the Mozambique on. It was pretty weird, no idea why I did it, but it was totally reflex.

Archangel
January 11, 2006, 01:35 PM
At the risk of veering off topic...

Well you train for what you expect to do. I'd hate to train myself to be shooting execution-style headshots after a reload. I also question the utility of the drill. If your initial shots don't work, you should be concentrating on getting to cover and running away--not standing there for a reload. If your first COM shots failed, why would more shots work? And how are you going to survive while you're reloading?

Read the description if El Presidente again. There is no mention of a headshot anywhere in there.


Also, as I said before, El Presidente is not a combat tactic. It is a drill for training and assessing basic handgun skills. Namely, draw, target acquisition, split times, target transition, reload, accuracy, and speed. By shooting one drill in practice, you get to practice all those skills, and by comparing your score/time to a par score/time or your previous results, you can assess your skill level or improvement.

But it does not confer or imply any training in tactics. Not that you don't need them. You need tactics, mindset, and gunhandling skills. El Pres is just for honing gunhandling skills.

(Back on topic)

The Mozambique Drill, on the other hand, can and should be employed as a combat tactic.

In practice, you fire 2 shots to COM, briefly look at the target (assess), and then fire the head shot.

In actual use, you fire 2 shots to COM, and if the target is still a threat, then you take the head shot.

Navy joe
January 11, 2006, 04:09 PM
See attachment for El Pres. procedure. Not a tactic unless you can convince the BGs to line up like that. :D The drill was supposedly concieved by Cooper for a VIP who wanted to know if his bodyguards were competent. Cooper gave him this and said that a person that could do it in 10 seconds with good hits was competent. That was in older days from concealment that exec protection guys would be wearing. World class now with a USPSA open gun is in the 4 second range with no dropped points. I am at about 7.25 seconds right now, once I get back to shooting my goal is 5.5/60 points from USPSA production legal gear. Like any USPSA classifier it is a great yardstick. Pay up and find out where you stand against the big boys.

PressCheck
January 11, 2006, 04:24 PM
[QUOTE= It is more commonly referred to nowadays as a failure drill.


They are different.

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