21-gun salute - just a reminder


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12.7x99mm
January 15, 2003, 10:21 PM
What is the origin of the 21-gun salute?
The use of gun salutes for military occasions is traced to early warriors who demonstrated their peaceful intentions by placing their weapons in a position that rendered them ineffective. Apparently this custom was universal, with the specific act varying with time and place, depending on the weapons being used. A North African tribe, for example, trailed the points of their spears on the ground to indicate that they did not mean to be hostile.

The tradition of rendering a salute by cannon originated in the 14th century as firearms and cannons came into use. Since these early devices contained only one projectile, discharging them once rendered them ineffective. Originally warships fired seven-gun salutes--the number seven probably selected because of its astrological and Biblical significance. Seven planets had been identified and the phases of the moon changed every seven days. The Bible states that God rested on the seventh day after Creation, that every seventh year was sabbatical and that the seven times seventh year ushered in the Jubilee year.

Land batteries, having a greater supply of gunpowder, were able to fire three guns for every shot fired afloat, hence the salute by shore batteries was 21 guns. The multiple of three probably was chosen because of the mystical significance of the number three in many ancient civilizations. Early gunpowder, composed mainly of sodium nitrate, spoiled easily at sea, but could be kept cooler and drier in land magazines. When potassium nitrate improved the quality of gunpowder, ships at sea adopted the salute of 21 guns.

The 21-gun salute became the highest honor a nation rendered. Varying customs among the maritime powers led to confusion in saluting and return of salutes. Great Britain, the world's preeminent seapower in the 18th and 19th centuries, compelled weaker nations to salute first, and for a time monarchies received more guns than did republics. Eventually, by agreement, the international salute was established at 21 guns, although the United States did not agree on this procedure until August 1875.

The gun salute system of the United States has changed considerably over the years. In 1810, the "national salute" was defined by the War Department as equal to the number of states in the Union--at that time 17. This salute was fired by all U.S. military installations at 1:00 p.m. (later at noon) on Independence Day. The President also received a salute equal to the number of states whenever he visited a military installation.

In 1842, the Presidential salute was formally established at 21 guns. In 1890, regulations designated the "national salute" as 21 guns and redesignated the traditional Independence Day salute, the "Salute to the Union," equal to the number of states. Fifty guns are also fired on all military installations equipped to do so at the close of the day of the funeral of a President, ex-President, or President-elect.

Today the national salute of 21 guns is fired in honor of a national flag, the sovereign or chief of state of a foreign nation, a member of a reigning royal family, and the President, ex-President and President-elect of the United States. It is also fired at noon of the day of the funeral of a President, ex-President, or President-elect.

Gun salutes are also rendered to other military and civilian leaders of this and other nations. The number of guns is based on their protocol rank. These salutes are always in odd numbers.

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Triad
January 15, 2003, 11:21 PM
I've always wondered where that came from. Thanks for sharing this.

Plan-B
January 16, 2003, 12:48 PM
What I've always wondered was if they fired live rounds into the air. Couldn't this have similar complications as the idiots that fire their guns into the air on New Years or Independence Day if they did?

Jeff White
January 16, 2003, 01:09 PM
What I've always wondered was if they fired live rounds into the air. Couldn't this have similar complications as the idiots that fire their guns into the air on New Years or Independence Day if they did?

No they don't fire live rounds. There is a Salute round consisting of just the charge that is fired.

Many people also confuse the volleys of musketry fired at the end of a military funeral as a 21 gun salute. That is not true. The firing party at the graveside can consist of between 3-10 soldiers. The three volleys of musketry are fired to signify that the funeral is over and the unit is ready to return to operations. This tradition is taken from the signal opposing armies used to fire to tell the other that the battlefield had been cleared of the dead and wounded and they were ready to return to normal operations after a truce or cease fire.

Jeff

Betty
January 16, 2003, 02:10 PM
Nope, they certainly don't use live rounds, or else half my family would be dead! :eek:

My grandfather's funeral (Lt.Colonel, Air Force) consisted of a "21 gun salute" (whatever you call it) - and those nuts didn't point their rifles in the air. They pointed them almost perpendicular to their bodies, facing our grieving family. We were incredibly startled and didn't have enough time to "react" when the first volley went off. It was followed by a few nervous laughs and us glancing around to see if anyone was "hurt".

:mad:

cratz2
January 16, 2003, 02:50 PM
It is a startling and touching reminder of what those that have served our country in war and 'police actions' have endured. Esp to those that have never or rarely been around guns.

Citadel99
January 16, 2003, 03:10 PM
Definitely no live rounds. I had the opportunity to fire a 75mm howitzer with blanks at The Citadel--a real blast!!! Live round would have hit Jenkins Hall. Somebody did shoot an eight ball out of it one time, though....

Mark

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