Pilum ("Roman" spear) Project


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Dirty Bob
July 22, 2013, 11:41 PM
I've been meaning to do this for years, so this weekend I finally just took a shot at building a simplified Roman pilum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilum) for fun. I started with a 36-inch piece of 3/8-inch round stock, along with a 60-inch hardwood tool handle. Total material cost was just under 13 bucks.

http://www.thehighroad.org/attachment.php?attachmentid=186667&stc=1&d=1374549852
I cold-forged a leaf-shaped point on one end, pounding with a small sledge hammer on a piece of railroad rail that is my "anvil." This took 15-20 minutes. I then cleaned the point up and sharpened it with a file. The forged head is a little under 3/4" in width and lengthened the steel stock by about 1/2".

I cut ten inches off the butt of the spearhead and drilled one end of the tool handle to the full 4-3/4" depth of my 3/8" spade bit. I roughed up the butt end of the spearhead and coated it with J-B Weld epoxy before seating it in the haft.

Cutting the haft to 42" at the butt gave me a total spear length of 65". I coated the forward end of the haft with carpenter's wood glue and wrapped it with twine to prevent splitting and to make a grip area. The rearmost part of it is right at the balance point.

http://www.thehighroad.org/attachment.php?attachmentid=186668&d=1374549852

The pilum is a heck of a lot of fun. With a cardboard box as a target, I found that I'm dangerous with my spear out to 10 yards or so at the moment. The point isn't real sharp, but the spear penetrates very well. The classic Roman pilum would have generally been heavier, and I can see how a legionary could launch such a weapon through the shield of an opponent, through his armor, and still have enough length of spearhead and force to make a serious wound.

Considering how easy it was to make and how fun it is to play with, I wish I'd made a spear a long time ago!

All my best,
Dirty Bob

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Sam Cade
July 23, 2013, 12:44 AM
Neat!

Are you gonna try to use a thong?

armoredman
July 23, 2013, 03:09 AM
Very nice! The original pilum had a soft shank so it would bend, thereby fouling an opponents shield forcing him to discard it.

Dirty Bob
July 23, 2013, 07:31 AM
Neat!

Are you gonna try to use a thong?
I hadn't thought to...I was wearing regular shorts when throwing it. :D

Seriously, I'm glad you mentioned that! The cord might help me to have a more consistent release and might help me reach out a bit further with this little spear. Thanks, Sam! :)

Very nice! The original pilum had a soft shank so it would bend, thereby fouling an opponents shield forcing him to discard it.
There might be some disagreement about that. The shank of the classic Roman pilum is narrow behind the head and would therefore be able to better punch through the opponent's shield and wound the opponent. According to Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilum#Results_of_experimental_archaeology), it's possible that the bending was a side benefit, with the main focus being penetration. It's hard to say for sure. As a legionary, I would certainly have been happy about the pila barrage's ability to break a charge by wounding opponents and making them clumsy. The pilum could even be stepped on when approaching an opponent. Kinda scary to think about what that would be like on the receiving end.

In any case, I'm enjoying trying my hand with a spear!

Regards,
Dirty Bob

glistam
July 23, 2013, 07:57 AM
Very nice! My father recently made one too (he's a history buff) though he formed a four-sided tip instead of leaf. He built his with a steel shoe and spike ferrule, which was apparently to brace against charges by sticking it in the ground. He also confirmed, based on his reading of some Latin texts, that they were well known for penetrating armor of the time.

GCBurner
July 23, 2013, 12:19 PM
I believe the heavy pilum was designed to pentrate enemy shields at fairly close range and stick there, dragging down the shield and maybe wounding the shield arm, in order to open the enemy up to being stabbed with the gladius when they closed. The bending after impact also kept the enemy from picking up the spears and throwing them back, as could happen with a regular javelin.
It was a utilitarian weapon, and the the one you made is very much in the form and spirit of the ones made and maintained by a Legion's smiths and armorers in the field.

Cosmoline
July 23, 2013, 12:36 PM
Very interesting. The idea of intentional bending always seemed a little questionable. I don't think there's very much first-hand information in the surviving descriptions. It would be interesting to recreate some of the combat in sparring and testing. I would expect any piece of iron penetrating a hardwood shield would get stuck fast pretty quickly without the need for a bent end.

My guess is that long shaft was calculated to deal with an enemy using Roman tactics, and would represent the length of penetration needed to skewer a man through the shield wall. If you imagine a wounded or dead man with a big shield and a long spear sticking both of them together, getting that mess out of the way could become an added problem for a unit trying to stay very closely linked. I don't really buy the idea that they were trying to get bent spears into cruder barbaric shields.

hso
July 23, 2013, 05:00 PM
Cold forging might make your tip brittle or cause cracking. Have you checked the temper with a file to see if you need to draw it back?

Unistat
July 23, 2013, 06:55 PM
I suggest looking to England for ideas about re-creating Roman weapons. Folks over there do Legion re-enactments sort of how we do Civil War re-enactments over here.

A few links.

http://www.erminestreetguard.co.uk/
http://www.romanarmy.net/
http://www.legiiavg.org.uk/
http://www.legionxxiv.org/

Dirty Bob
July 23, 2013, 07:36 PM
Cold forging might make your tip brittle or cause cracking. Have you checked the temper with a file to see if you need to draw it back?
It's hot-rolled steel, which is fairly ductile. When I sharpened it, the file cut it readily. There might be some work-hardening, but I don't think it's brittle. If it is, maybe I'll find out the first time I hit a rock. There are plenty of them here on the edge of the Texas Hill Country. :uhoh:

I suspect that the pyramid point with a narrow shaft behind it would almost be like a barbed point in a shield. I'm surprised the Romans didn't barb the points. It wouldn't be difficult to do for just about any 'smith.

A spear stuck in an opponent or his shield can be used as a handle. It would also make an opponent clumsy, even with a minor wound or a spear that just penetrated the shield or a piece of armor without wounding the soldier. Imagine trying to climb a hill or go through a grove of trees with a spear haft sticking out of you or your gear.

If I were making this as a hunting spear, I would use 1/2-inch stock, so that I could probably get a broader point, as well as the benefits of a heavier spearhead, in terms of penetration.

Thank you for the encouragement,
Dirty Bob

Sam Cade
July 23, 2013, 08:07 PM
I'm surprised the Romans didn't barb the points.

They often did.

Nasty.

http://img690.imageshack.us/img690/1531/romanpilum.jpg

Billy Shears
July 23, 2013, 08:53 PM
I've read about the shanks supposedly bending on the pilum, and as someone here observed, it's a somewhat controversial idea, and a lot of historians reject it. What there seems to be better evidence for is the idea that the shank did not bend, but was attached to the wooden spear shaft with two pins, or rivets, one of which was weaker, and would usually break on impact, so now the shank would flop about like it was attached to the spear shaft by a hinge, and it would be useless to the enemy for a return throw at the Romans -- the same effect as if the shank itself bent. And when you think about it, a breakable pin makes a lot more sense if your goal is to make the weapon useless for the enemy to throw back at you. Pila would be collected and reissued after a battle, and if they all had to be hammered out straight again, that would mean not only a lot more work for the legionary armorers, but the likelihood is that they'd be never be straightened quite perfectly, and they'd be harder to throw accurately. On the other hand, if fixing them for reuse means simply replacing a wooden pin, it not only takes far less time and effort to repair them for reuse, it doesn't change the balance or dynamics of the weapon by having the shank hammered into a slightly different shape each time.

It is, of course, entirely possible that both methods were used at various times. To be sure, archaeologists have found pila with shanks that were attached with tangs or sockets fitted into or over the spear shaft, so the breaking pin method would obviously not apply to them. It's possible they were designed to bend on impact, and it's quite possible they weren't. Or that some were, and some weren't. Roman military equipment was not really standardized like ours is today. Partly this is because it was made in various workshops, in various parts of the empire, and involved a lot of hand labor. And it's partly because the Romans kept reissuing any given piece of equipment until it was no longer serviceable, no matter how old it was, or what newer types had come into service. As a result, the legions never really looked uniform like modern armies. It's thought that some mail shirts (lorica hamata) were probably reused for more than a century, and would have served alongside the newer lorica segmentata after those appeared in the reign of Augustus, even in the same units. In fact you'd see legionaries in the same unit with different patterns of helmet, lorica, gladius, etc.. It would be like seeing a modern U.S. army unit standing in formation, with most of the soldiers wearing modern kevlar helments, but a lot of them with old M1 steel pots, and even the odd M1917 tin hat, and some with M16A2s, some with M16A1s, etc.

4v50 Gary
July 23, 2013, 11:00 PM
Ave Cesare! Senatus Populusquo Roma!

Now I want to make one. :)

Unistat
July 24, 2013, 11:25 AM
Ave Cesare! Senatus Populusquo Roma!

Now I want to make one. :)

Ad canum cum Ceasar! Vivo Republicae!

Cosmoline
July 24, 2013, 12:16 PM
No civil wars gentlemen! But wouldn't it be ad canes?

Unistat
July 24, 2013, 12:48 PM
No civil wars gentlemen! But wouldn't it be ad canes?
Possibly. My Latin classes were many, many years ago.

Dave Markowitz
July 30, 2013, 10:37 AM
Cum pila proscriptae erunt tum soli proscripti pila habebunt.

;)

Dirty Bob
July 30, 2013, 08:37 PM
Cum pila proscriptae erunt tum soli proscripti pila habebunt.

;)
Any translation available for Dave's Latin? Puedo hablar en una lengua latina, pero no entiendo esas palabras de David. Ayudame!

Not understanding much,
Bob

rcmodel
July 30, 2013, 08:47 PM
Cum pila proscriptae erunt tum soli proscripti pila habebunt.I think it means, one Roman solder says to another:

"I got a bad case of the running trots from that green water we drank at the last sewer aqueduct the column stopped at."

I could be wrong though. :confused:

rc

Potatohead
July 30, 2013, 08:55 PM
hahahahahahahahahha....a thong

Dirty Bob
July 30, 2013, 09:04 PM
They often did.

Nasty.

http://img690.imageshack.us/img690/1531/romanpilum.jpg

Definitely nasty! Hey, Sam, that's a great image and a big help! It looks like an illo from an academic book I read years ago, about war in the classical world.

When you look at those spears from a smith's POV, they're very well-designed. The socketed heads were probably forged from a single piece of iron, with a long, flat triangle curled around to form the socket and then either left "open," or the edges forge welded. I've read that, in any case, a pilum head is forged of one piece of iron, which makes them a fairly good representation of some skill with a hammer, especially for someone who probably was cranking them out in big numbers.

Pilum no. 4 looks especially good, by the way.

The riveted head was probably easier to remove from the haft, if needed, for rebending or replacement. A long metal shank or socket would have made a spear difficult to cut when it was stuck in a shield or in an enemy of Rome. Overall, an ingenious design that was used for hundreds of years. It seems the pilum worked well for the Republic and for the Empire which followed it.

Thanks, man! I need to make some more pila. The next one, I think, will have a 2-foot piece of 1/2-inch hot-rolled round stock as the basis for its head. This will make my leaf-shaped point wider. I think I can get an inch of width without too much trouble. If I apply a cold chisel, I can turn it into a barbed point, but I like the leaf-shape better for removing from my target.

I also keep thinking about a "modern" version of the plumbata. :D

SPQR!
Dirty Bob

Sam Cade
July 30, 2013, 09:12 PM
Any translation available for Dave's Latin?

I think he was aiming for "When the spear is outlawed, only outlaws will have spears."

glistam
July 30, 2013, 09:17 PM
Cum pila proscriptae erunt tum soli proscripti pila habebunt

"When pilum are outlawed, only outlaws will have pilum"
It's a version of a joke where "catapult" is used instead of pilum.

but I like the leaf-shape better for removing from my target.

I also keep thinking about a "modern" version of the plumbata.

I would definitely avoid any kind of barbs, it will just make target extraction a nightmare. My dad favors the four-sided pyramid shape.

I too wanted to try a plumbata, but be advised this picture is not necessarily accurate. The real ones had a hand-span longer shaft after the fletchings, and where thrown overhand like a tomahawk!

Dirty Bob
July 30, 2013, 10:55 PM
For plumbata, the basic parts are a point, a shaft, fletchings, and a weight. The point could be a 6- to 8-inch piece of 3/8" steel rod, with one end forged into a leaf shape. For the shaft, I'm thinking of a 16-inch piece of 1/2" to 5/8" wooden dowel, with 3/4" being the widest I'd accept. For flights, I'm thinking either feathers or leather, or even thin wood. For the weight, it looks as though people cast a chunk of lead onto the shaft/head junction. I'm thinking about a piece of plumbing pipe, 4-6 inches in length, over the shaft. It would protect the shaft against splitting and provide the needed weight, although if it extends an inch or two over the 3/8 steel, I could fill the space between the rod and the pipe with lead. If I attach the flights forward of the butt of the shaft, it leaves a "handle" on the end for throwing underhand. That's the throw I favor for distance. It can also thrown underhand at close range.

As an alternate construction method, I could use 1/2" round stock and a 1/2" shaft, with the butt of the head and the head of the shaft inserted into a piece of plumbing pipe. Two small pins would secure the parts together. The thick round stock would add weight, along with the piece of pipe. It would also give a wider, sturdier point. This method could give a more streamlined, simple-looking dart than the more traditional method, and it might be heavier than the plumbata described in the preceding paragraph.

In either case, the Dirty Bob version of the plumbata would look like a lawn dart from Hades, with some of the shaft extending behind the flights as a handle. I can see why the Romans finally switched to them, if a throwing weapon was all they wanted, although the pilum really would have been a heckuva charge stopper, and it could have been used as a thrusting spear to hold off cavalry. I think the Romans should have kept one pilum and replaced the second one with two or more plumbata in pockets on the back of the scutum (shield).

----------------------------------

Ya, wanna know, why, though, I really made the pilum in the first place? I keep thinking of our brethren under the benighted weapon laws in other places. My simplified "pilum" is simple enough that you could make a few, paint them black, and use them as heavy-duty plant stakes! Lighter, cheaper, more mundane-looking "stakes" could be made with 1/4" steel stock, broom handles, and string for wrapping. If things got ugly, you could go out to the garden, pull the stakes up, brush off some dirt, and set them someplace handy in case of need.

If several people each had a "plant stake" or two, they could be quite a formidable group to reckon with, especially if guns were scarce. Whenever I read of people somewhere arming themselves with makeshifts after a natural disaster or other event, I wish they had something more effective, like some pila in the hands of a group of determined people defending their families.

Sorry for going on so long, but that's what I was thinking about while I made that spear!

All my best,
Dirty Bob

rcmodel
July 30, 2013, 11:11 PM
Plant stake??

Surely you have dandelions in your yard don't you??

This Rat Cheer is my Pilum!!
I keep one handy in the front of the garage by the door, and another one on the back deck for any rampaging dandelions, or Roman pillagers.

http://www.amazon.com/Ames-True-Temper-1941600-Dandelion/dp/B00004S1Z5/ref=pd_sim_sbs_hi_3

I pity the fool that got slapped up side the head with the handle, or stuck in the gizzard with the blade.

Yes, it's a little short for a Pilum.
But so am I.

rc

Dirty Bob
July 30, 2013, 11:18 PM
Plant stake??

Surely you have dandelions in your yard don't you??

This Rat Cheer is my Pilum!!
I keep one handy in the front of the garage by the door, and another one on the back deck for any rampaging dandelions, or Roman pillagers.

http://www.amazon.com/Ames-True-Temper-1941600-Dandelion/dp/B00004S1Z5/ref=pd_sim_sbs_hi_3

OUCH! :D
Cheap, but effective! That would HURT! Good idea, rc!
Just keep it sharp, for...er...gardening! Yeah, that's it!

Bob

Cosmoline
July 31, 2013, 01:19 PM
You know they probably did have very well maintained vegetable gardens.

Officers'Wife
July 31, 2013, 02:19 PM
Another OMB heard from...

Just don't get the bright idea to kill a large animal with it they way your ancestors did.

In the meanwhile, you need the accessories my ancestors left me.

http://www.thehighroad.org/attachment.php?attachmentid=187166&d=1375294541

Sam Cade
July 31, 2013, 02:39 PM
Just don't get the bright idea to kill a large animal with it they way your ancestors did.

I dunno about that.

I've been quite successful at deanimating critters via spear.

http://www.thehighroad.org/attachment.php?attachmentid=187168&stc=1&d=1375295882


Hafted with a shovel handle. ;)

Dave Markowitz
July 31, 2013, 03:22 PM
Sam and glistam get gold stars. :)

broken
July 31, 2013, 04:08 PM
like that spear,been checkin out spearheads on the net..

Dirty Bob
July 31, 2013, 07:02 PM
That's a Cold Steel Boar Spear head, isn't it, Sam? Scary.

Regards,
Dirty Bob

Sam Cade
July 31, 2013, 07:17 PM
That's a Cold Steel Boar Spear head, isn't it, Sam? Scary.


Yup.

Exactly the sort of thing that alien factions vying for supremacy on a planet where supplying high technology to the locals is proscribed would give to their proxies.

Cheap and nasty.

Also, the shaft that Cold Steel provides is too dang long to run around through the briars playing stick-pig.

Getting one crossways betwixt two trees is even less fun than accidental pole-vaulting. :o

The shorter mud-shovel handle is just about perfect for a man of my slightly abbreviated stature to wield whilst crashing through the brambles to intercede in canine/porcine conflict all the while screeching out the traditional caterwaul of my people. :D

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/video/What-Did-the-Rebel-Yell-Sound-Like.html

Officers'Wife
August 1, 2013, 01:51 PM
My late uncle often told the story of a man that brought a home made spear to the reservation (Standing Rock) and in a fit of alcohol fueled idiocy decided to use it to kill a buffalo "just like his ancestors." Luckily for him a Lakota closer to his ancestors had a trap door Springfield stolen from a US Cavalryman. I was always ushered out of the room before the reaction of the rancher that owned the bison was described.

So... as deadly as the weapon may look... While God may protect drunkards and fools a .44 Magnum would go far to meeting Him halfway.

Arizona_Mike
August 1, 2013, 03:10 PM
The plumbata was preferred over the pilum and javelin in the late Roman period as it had amazing range and penetrating power and the average soldier would carry 5 or more vs 2.

They remained popular until the Consumer Products Safety Commission banned them in 1988 :)

http://img31.imageshack.us/img31/6943/plumbata.jpg

Mike

Sam Cade
August 1, 2013, 03:17 PM
They remained popular until the Consumer Products Safety Commission banned them in 1988 :)


...and you know that is what every legionary worth his salarium did with his after duty hours ended.

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