It's a bit more complicated than that. http://www.atf.gov/publications/newsletters/ffl/ffl-newsletter-2008-11.pdf If you are a permanent resident (immigrant alien) (have a "green" card), you have to show ID, green card and proof of residency in the state for the last 90 days (utility bills, etc). If you are NOT a permanent resident (non-immigrant alien) it's a bit more complicated. You have to show proof of residency and have an exception, the most practical of which is a hunting license. The link shows FEDERAL requirements for residency, state requirements may vary. California, for example, will NOT accept bank statements as proof, even though the Feds will.