While looking for something else I came across an interesting article about firing undersized projectiles designed for cartridge arms out of a muzzleloader using sabots and/or paper patches. The idea was to test the performance of the projectiles at terminal velocities, but I'm sure muzzleloader enthusiasts will find other inspiration from the article. This is a link to the article: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0812/0812.4934.pdf Within the article was a section that posed the idea of using a mixture of 65% potassium nitrate and 35% table sugar as a propellant. The article stated that such a mixture is already used as a propellant in model rocketry. I wonder if anyone has tried such a formulation in a black powder rifle. This is the relevant section: In early 2009, we will be testing thepotential to use powders based on a mixture of sugar and potassium nitrate. This combination has often been suggested as a black powder substitute, and a blend (by weight) of 65% KNO3 and 35% sucrose (table sugar) is widely used instead of black powder in model rocketry. It is slightly less energetic than black powder, and has a lower dependence of burn rate on pressure, suggesting smooth, gradual changes of muzzle velocity with powder charge. We plan to test a mixture of 65% KNO3 and 35% sucrose blended in a coffee grinder, and compare performance with the addition of 2% red iron oxide as a catalyst. We expect smoother performance at lower charges, easier cleanup, and less foul smell than black powder and substitutes. Interested readers may contact us for preliminary results.