You can't talk about blood vessels as if they are all the same. Veins are low pressure and have valves. Arteries are high pressure and don't have valves. Arteries are designed to move blood efficiently. They're not designed to dampen BP. If you hold your upper arm and wrist at the same level, there will be very little difference in BP. The lungs dampen the transmision of the pressure produced by the TSC to the major vessels in the chest. Once the BP spike occurs the lung do nothing to dampen it. I have a few questions for the Fackler camp that I can't any other Facklerite to answer, so I'll try you. 1) Are there any lab animal studies that show shots in the extremities show an increase in intra-cranial pressure. For those that don't know, BPW's proposed mechanism is by increase in intra-cranial pressure. This is really a rhetorical question. There is a study done on anesthetized dogs shot in the thigh that demonstrates this to be a fact. There are also at least 2 other studies that show an increase in pressure at a location remote from the wound site. That BPW exists is a fact. Since these studies were done on anesthetized animals, the question of at what, if any, point does the pressure increase hinder an individuals ability to function is left open. 2) Fackler holds the view that any rapid incapacitation can only occur by a) CNS damage b) psychological incapacitation. The question is, where are the psychological studies that back this up. 3) Fackler seems to make the claim that psychological incapacitation is independent of caliber, at least within the realm of service pistol calibers. Doesn't matter if it's a FMJ 9mm or a 125 gr SJHP .357 mag. Where are the psychological studies that back this up.