Some history kind of forgotten here. When Virginia's shall issue CCW went into force in the mid-1990s, fingerprinting was mandatory for all of them. VCDL, or at the time NVCDL (it was founded in northern Virginia), fought fingerprinting hard but was only able to get the current "local option" compromise passed. Much later they were able to strip out all fingerprinting for renewal. Surprisingly, Fairfax County, a pretty liberal place, doesn't require fingerprints. The first shall issue CCW permits were two years as well...later changed to five.